The Grand Anicut Dam, often referred to as Kallanai Dam, is the fourth-oldest dam in the world. The people of Tamilnadu, India, continue to use it. In the second century AD, King Karikala Chola of the Chola Dynasty built the dam. There is a dam on the River Kaveri around 20 kilometres from Tiruchirapall.
Water from the kallanai dam is used to irrigate 400,000 acres of land in the Delta Region. The building is 329 metres long, 20 metres wide, and 5.4 metres high. British general and irrigation engineer Arthur Cottons made improvements to the dam in the 19th century.